云南省人民政府外事办公室

云南省人民政府港澳事务办公室

云南省人民对外友好协会

2017-09-14 11:10:00

资料来源:新闻处

 (原文)

链接:北京赛车pk10开奖

More Than a Museum

本文地址:http://www.ssuawd.com/wgjzkyn/201709/t20170914_609067.html
文章摘要:,蜡人领航员党的十六,性感美眉开发板高频头。

By Binod Ghimire from Kathmandu Post

Published: 09-09-2017 08:53

Ethnic minority village in Kunming, China shows how endangered ethnic minority cultures can be preserved, while also generating money through tourism

Sep 9, 2017-Hardly 10 kilometers from the busyness and chaos of downtown Kunming—the capital of China’s Yunnan Province—is Minzu Cun, which translates into ‘Ethnic Minorities Village’ in English. Located on a narrow peninsula on the sprawling Dainchi Lake and the Western Hill Forest Park, this village is home to a host of villas, one each for the 26 ethnic minority communities of this south-western province of China that borders Vietnam, Laos and Myanmar. 

Unlike Nepal where no one community has predominant stake over the demographics, around 92 percent of China’s 1.3 billion people belong to the Han ethnicity. The remaining eight percent of the population belong to 53 different ethnic minorities, some of which have population counts as low as 5,000 individuals. Twenty six of these minorities hail from the culturally diverse Yunnan Province.

Over the past half century, China’s economic boom has resulted in its citizens gravitating away from villages and townships in the countryside towards urban clusters on the country’s eastern seaboard. And while this has made economic opportunities available to those who had not been able to access it in the past, it has also accelerated the homogenisation of cultures. Realising that languages, cultures and traditions of the minority ethnic groups were in acute danger because of the urban rush, the Chinese government established the Ethnic Minorities Village complex in 1992. What initially began as a small cluster of four villas has today expanded into a sprawling estate that now boasts 26 homes, each depicting the uniqueness of each of Yunnan’s minorities.

Walking into Minzu Cun is surreal for obvious reasons. Not only do the villas showcase exquisite indigenous architecture of minority communities such as Achan, Jinpo, Lisu, Nu, Pumi and Wa, the spaces are also allow visitors to interact and sample the cultures, cuisines and traditional clothes that stitch together the diverse tapestry of the province. “The village does not just preserve the diversity of different ethnic communities but also serves as a school to learn about cultures, music, cuisines and costumes of these communities,” said Zhu Mei, a journalist with China International Radio and a Nepali interpreter, referring to trained instructors and artisans who teach dances, music and the craft of making instruments, while living within the community.

Spread out over 208 acres, the Ethnic Minorities Village is fully managed by the Chinese government, and the community’s residents receive fooding and lodging, in addition to free education. Furthermore, the ethnic minorities who have migrated to the community from the province’s rural belts make handsome incomes by showcasing their dances and cultures to the millions of tourists who visit the Village each year.

“The government has provided so many incentives that every individual from the representative ethnic communities is happy to belong to this larger community,” Zhu added. The Village is open to tourists from nine in the morning to the five in the evening, where they can observe firsthand the lifestyle of the each community, along with the live performance of cultural songs and dances. The visitors can also try traditional cuisines available round the clock. If planned ahead, tourists can also partake in the different festivals observed by the different communities at different times during the year.

Ethnic Minorities Village is also home to the Yunnan Ethnic Museum, the largest ethnic museum in China, that has on display every facet of the lives and cultures of the 53 minority groups across China. And even though the Village is in itself an open museum, it feels so much more. Because the residents actually live in the Village, celebrating each other’s uniqueness, the performances do not necessarily come across as contrived, even if they are at some level. Instead, because you are interacting with the people in their lived-in spaces, the Village is able to give its visitors an air of authenticity that perhaps a museum or a theme-park might not have been able to.

At a time when ethnic minorities around the world are staring down the palpable threat of erosion, and even extinction, Minzu Cun is a great example of a modality that can be adopted to ensure the preservation, if not the flourishing, of the said cultures. In Nepal, for instance, there are 125 different communities that make up our diverse nation, but a sizeable portion of these cultures are on the verge of disappearing altogether within the next generation. An Ethnic Minority Village of our own could potentially be a viable step towards preserving those in immediate danger of extinction. If arresting the inevitable homogenisation of cultures due to urbanisation, migration and assimilation might not be possible, it certainly is feasible that disappearing lifestyles and traditions be conserved and passed on in spirit.

(译文)

不止是个博物馆

作者:尼泊尔《加德满都邮报》比诺德·吉米雷

发表时间:2017年9月9日08:53

中国昆明的民族村向世人展示了,北京赛车pk10开奖:濒危少数民族文化可以怎样得到保护和传承,并通过旅游业产生经济效益。

2017年9月9日—昆明是中国云南省的省会。民族村位于距昆明城区的忙碌与喧嚣不到10公里的地方,坐落在茫茫滇池边和西山森林公园旁一个狭长的半岛上。民族村由一群院落组成,每个院落里分别居住着云南26个世居少数民族中的一个。云南省地处中国西南部,与越南、老挝、缅甸三国接壤。

在尼泊尔,没有一个族群在人口统计学上占有明显数量优势。与尼泊尔不同的是,在中国的13亿人口中,约有92%的中国人是汉族,余下的8%分属于53个不同的少数民族。有的少数民族人口数量少至5000人。这其中,就有26个少数民族来自文化丰富多样的云南。

过去的五十年间,中国快速发展的繁荣经济驱使中国居民纷纷离开了农村与乡村小镇,集中到东部沿海的城市群。这让那些过去未能好好发展的族群有了发展经济的机会,也加快了多种文化间的均质化进程。当中国政府意识到,城市化热潮正导致少数民族群体的语言、文化和传统濒临消亡的危险,便于1992年修建了民族村综合设施。自此,民族村就由最初4个院落的大小逐渐扩展至今日26个院落的规模了,每个院落都分别刻画着不同云南少数民族的独特特征。

可以想见,走进民族村的体验是超然于世的。这不仅是因为各个院落确实展现了像阿昌族、景颇族、傈僳族、怒族、普米族和佤族等不同少数民族精美的建筑风格,更因为游客们还可在院落里与少数民族直接互动,感知他们的不同文化、饮食、传统服饰等等这些共同织就了云南多样性华毯的元素。“民族村的意义不仅在于保护少数民族多样性,它更作为一所学校在发挥作用,让旁人得以了解这些少数民族的文化、音乐、饮食和服饰。”中国国际广播电台记者、尼泊尔语翻译朱梅这样说道。朱梅指的是那些训练有素的少数民族导师与艺术家,他们住在民族村院落里,教授舞蹈、音乐以及制作乐器的工艺。

民族村占地超过208英亩,完全由中国政府运营。中国政府向住在民族村内的少数民族居民提供食宿和免费接受教育的优惠。而且,那些从云南偏远地区搬入民族村的少数民族,还通过向民族村每年数以百万计的游客表演民族舞蹈、展现民俗文化赚取可观的收入。

“政府提供的优惠措施之多,足以让住在这里、分属不同少数民族的每一个人都乐于融入民族村这个大集体。”朱梅还说道。民族村对游客的开放时间为早上九点到傍晚五点。在这期间,游客们可亲身感受每个少数民族的生活习俗,欣赏生动的演出和民族文化歌舞。此外,游客们还可品尝到传统民族美食。若提前规划一下,游客们还可在全年不同的时段参加不同民族举行的各种节日庆典活动。

民族村内还有中国最大的少数民族博物馆,云南民族博物馆。这博物馆全面展示了全国53个少数民族的生活与文化。

虽然民族村本身就是一个开放的博物馆,它给人的感觉却远不止于此。这是因为,那些少数民族居民确确实实住在民族村里,并且过着标榜自身特点的生活。哪怕在某种层面上可以通过提前规划观看演出,但其实,游客们无须经过刻意设计,就能随机观赏沿途的民族演出。实际上,因为作为游客的你是在少数民族日常居住的环境中和他们产生的互动,这样一来,民族村就让游客产生了一种真实感,而这,却是博物馆或主题公园都无法给予的。

当世界各地的少数民族关注自己可能被岁月侵蚀、甚至消融的威胁时,民族村为切实保护传承工作提供了可供借鉴的范本,哪怕难以面面俱到,至少也要传承好上述那些民族文化。例如,尼泊尔这个民族多样化的国度是由125个不同的民族组成的,但这其中,有相当一部分比例的民族文化已到了即将在下一代失传的危险边缘。建设一个属于我们自己的民族村,这将很有可能成为我们在应对即将消亡的危险、保护民族文化过程中迈出的有力一步。因城镇化、地理迁徙和文明同化带来的文化均质化难以避免。如果不太可能阻止得了这个大趋势,那么,保留正在逐渐消失的生活习俗与传统,并将其在精神上进行传承则是可以做到的。

注:《加德满都邮报》是尼泊尔发行量最大的英文报纸


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